ResIF 435L1

Activated solder wire

replaced by

ResIF 435L1 been replaced by .

For those still interested:

Interflux ResIF 435L1 is a colophony free, activated no-clean lead-free solder wire for surfaces that are difficult to solder. ResIF 435L1 can be used for automated soldering as well as for hand soldering.

ResIF 435L1 SnAgCu 500g

Suitable for

  • Robot soldering is a technology used in electronics manufacturing to connect electronic or electro mechanical components to a carrier material. The components are usually through hole components and the carrier a PCB board. Robot soldering is mainly used in these cases where the standard soldering processes like reflow, wave and selective soldering cannot be used due to e.g. temperature sensitivity of the components and limited solderability of the surface. In general robot soldering is a rather slow soldering process, not really suitable for high volume productions. The soldering robot has a wettable soldering tip. The temperature of this soldering tip can be set to a certain temperature that will be determined by the used soldering alloy which is applied by means of a solder wire. The soldering tip is positioned on the surfaces to be soldered. The X-Y-Z positioning can vary from one system to another. In some cases the soldering tip is doing all the movement but in other cases the X-Y positioning is done by moving the PCB board. Some systems can also program the angle of soldering tip and from which side it accesses the solderable surfaces. This can be useful when accessibility to the solderable surfaces is limited by e.g. components that are already on the PCB board from a previous assembly/soldering process. In a first stage the soldering tip will preheat the surfaces to be soldered. To promote heat transfer, in general a bit of solder is already added to the contact interface of the soldering tip and the surfaces to be soldered. The liquid solder improves heat transfer and speeds up the process. The time of preheating will be determined by the thermal mass of the component and PCB board. After that, the correct volume of solder wire is added and the liquid soldering alloy will wet the surfaces to be soldered and the component and PCB board are connected with a solder joint. The main focal points of the robot soldering  process are usually optimising soldering speed, limiting solder and flux spatters, limiting flux residue formation after soldering and limiting pollution of the soldering tip. A key parameter in this matter is the used solder wire and more specifically the flux that is contained within this solder wire. For faster soldering, often an activated (halogenated) solder wire from the 'L1' classification or higher is being used. Solder wires specifically designed for robot soldering exist. Beside fast soldering they will limit spatters, flux residue and soldering tip pollution. They also exist within the 'L0'-classification

  • Hand soldering is a technology in electronics manufacturing that uses a hand (de)soldering iron to make a solder joint or to desolder a component from a PCB board. The process is mostly used in rework and repair but also to solder single components that have been left out of the bulk soldering process (reflow or wave soldering). This can be due to the availability or the temperature sensitivity of these components. The soldering iron usually is part of a soldering station that has a power supply that controls the temperature of the soldering iron. This temperature can be set according to the used soldering alloy and usually is between 320°C-390°C. The soldering iron has an exchangeable soldering tip that can be chosen according to the component to be soldered. For optimal heat transfer the biggest possible soldering tip is recommendable, certainly when soldering (heavy thermal mass) through hole components. For soldering thermally heavy components and boards, the power of the soldering station is also important to keep the set temperature of the soldering tip. In rework and repair, changing the soldering tip for every different component is not realistic and only a few soldering tips are used. Soldering tips exist to solder several surface mount solder joints in a row like for e.g. SOICs (Small Outline Integrated Circuit) and QFPs (Quad Flat Package). To promote heat transfer and flowing of the solder, the soldering tips are wettable, meaning that they make an interaction with the soldering alloy. During soldering these tips will oxidize and they can loose their wettability which will obstruct heat transfer. This can be avoided by cleaning the soldering tip with e.g. a tip tinner. After some time the soldering tips will also wear out and will need to be replaced. The life time of the soldering tip can be optimised by avoiding the use of abrasive or agressive soldering tip cleaners or by avoiding mechanically cleaning the soldering tip with e.g. steel wool or sand paper. The use of an absolutely halogen free tip tinner is advisable.  In hand soldering, the solder for the solder joint is usually provided by a solder wire. A solder wire is available in several diameters and several alloys, and has a certain quantity of a certain type of flux inside.  The alloy is usually the same or a similar alloy as the bulk soldering process (reflow, wave or selective soldering). The diameter is chosen according to the size of the solder joint. The flux content in the solder wire is usually determined by the thermal mass of the component and board to be soldered. (Heavy thermal mass) through hole solder joints need more flux. More flux content will also give more visual flux residue after soldering. Sometimes extra flux is needed which in most cases is a liquid rework and repair flux but also can be a gel flux.  The type of flux/ solder wire is determined by the solderability of the surfaces to be soldered. With normal solderability of electronic components and PCB boards an absolutely halogen free 'L0' type of flux/solder wire is advisable. In general a hand soldering operation is performed like this: Set the temperature of the soldering tip according to the used soldering alloy. For lead-free alloys, the advised working temperature is between 320°C and 390°C. For more dense metals like Nickel, the temperature may be elevated to 420°C. The use of a good soldering station is important. Use a soldering station with a short response time and with enough power for your application. Choose the correct soldering tip: to reduce the thermal resistance, it is important to create a large as possible contact area with the surfaces to be soldered. Heat up both the surfaces simultaneously. Slightly touch with the solder wire, the point where soldering tip and the surfaces to be soldered meet (the small quantity of solder ensures a drastic lowering of the thermal resistance). Add subsequently without interruption, the correct amount of solder close to the soldering tip without touching the tip. This will reduce the risk on flux spitting and premature flux consumption!

  • Rework and repair on an electronic unit can be performed on defective electronic units that return from the field but can also be necessary in an electronic production environment to correct defects in the assembly and soldering processes. Typical rework and repair actions involve the removal of solder bridging, adding of solder to poor through hole filled components or adding missing solder, replacing wrong components, replacing components that are placed in the wrong direction, replacing components that have defects related to the high soldering temperatures in the processes, adding components that were left out of the process due to e.g. availability or temperature sensitivity. The identification of these defects can be done by visual inspection, by AOI (Automated Optical Inspection), by ICT (In Circuit Testing, electrical testing) or by CAT (Computer Aided Testing, functional testing). A lot of repair operations can be done with a hand soldering station that has a (de)soldering iron with temperature setting. Solder is added by means of a solder wire that is available in several alloys and diameters and contains a flux inside. In some cases a liquid repair flux and/or a gel flux are used to make the hand soldering process easier. For bigger componnets, like BGAs (Ball Grid Array), LGA's (Land Grid Array) QFNs (Quad Flat No Leads), QFPs (Quad Flat Package), PLCCs( Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier),...a repair unit can be used that simulates a reflow profile. These repair units are available in different sizes and with different options. In most cases they contan a preheating from the bottom side that is usually IR (Infrared). This preheating can be controlled by a thermocouple that is placed on the PCB. Some units have a pick and place unit that facilitates the correct positioning of the component on the PCB. The heating unit is usually hot air or IR or a combination of these two. With the aid of thermocouples on the PCB, the heater is controlled to create the desired soldering profile. In some cases the challenge is to bring the component to soldering temperatures without remelting adjacent components. This can be difficult when the component to be repaired is big and has small components near to it. For BGAs with balls made of a soldering alloy, a gel flux can be used or a liquid flux with higher solid content. In this case the solder for the solder joint is provided by the balls. But also the use of a solder paste is possible. The solder paste can be printed on the leads of the component or on the PCB. This requires a different stencil for each different component. The BGA can also be dipped in a special dipping solder paste that first is printed in a layer with a stencil with one large aperture and a certain thickness. For QFNs, LGAs QFNs, QFPs, PLCCs,...solder needs to be added to make a solder joint. In some cases QFPs can be hand soldered but the technique requires experience so the use of a rework unit is preferred. QFPs and PLCCs have leads and can be used with a dipping solder paste. QFNs, LGA's QFNs who do not have leads but flat contacts cannot be used with a dipping solder paste dipped because their bodies would contact the solder paste. In this case the solder paste needs to be printed on the contacts or on teh PCB. In general it is easier to print solder paste on the component than on the PCB, especially when a so-called 3D stencil is used that has a cavity where the position of the component is fixed. Replacing through hole components can be done with a hand (de)soldering station. This is usually done by placing a hollow desoldering tip over the bottomside of the component lead that can suck away solder from the hole. The desoldering tip will have to heat all the solder in the through hole until it is fully liquid. For thermally heavy boards this can be very difficult. In this case, also the top side of the solder joint can be heated with a soldering iron.  Alternatively the board can be preheated over a preheating before the desoldering operation. Soldering the through hole component is usually done with a solder wire that contains more flux or alternatively extra rework flux is added to the through hole and/or on the component lead. For larger through hole connectors, a dip soldering bath can be used to remove the connector. If accessibilty on the PCB is limited a nozzle with its size adapted to the connector can be used. The use of flux in this operation is recommended.

Key advantages

  • Colophony, also called rosin, is a substance derived from trees that is typically used in soldering fluxes. It can be used in liquid fluxes as well as in gel fluxes. Colophony containing fluxes can be identified by the denomination 'RO' in the IPC classification. Colophony in general provides a good process window in time and temperature but has a number of disadvantages depending on the application that the colophony containing flux is used in. In liquid fluxes for wave and selective soldering, the colophony will give an increased risk on blocking the nozzle of spray and micro jet flux application systems, resulting in more maintenance and higher risk on bad soldering results. The residues of a rosin (=colophony) based flux in the soldering machine and on tools and carriers are quite hard to remove and a solvent based cleaner is usually needed. When the flux with colophony accidentally ends up on the contacts of a connector or contact comb structures like for a remote control or in electro mechanical contactors / relays / switches, it is known to give contact problems and malfunctioning of the electronic unit in the field.  Furthermore the residues of the flux that remain on the board can give contact problems with electrical pin testing ( ICT= In Circuit Testing) which can result in delays in production because of false errors. This usually requires cleaning of the PCB and/or the test pins. These expensive test pins are rather fragile and sensitive to be damaged by cleaning.  Furthermore the residues of a rosin flux are known not to be compatible with conformal coatings in time. The rosin residue forms a separation layer between the PCB and conformal coating that in time can cause detaching of the conformal coating and also cracking, especially when the electonic unit experiences a lot of temperature cycles (warming up and cooling down).  For those reasons fluxes without colophony and more specifically fluxes from the 'OR' classification are generally used for wave and selective soldering. Colophony can also be used in solder wires. Although the colophony provides a good process window in time and temperature, it is very sensitive to discoloration when heated. The discoloration will depend on the type of colophony and the temperature it has seen. As soldering tip temperatures are usually quite high, the colophony in the solder wire will give quite heavy visual residue formation around the solder joints. This will distinguish them from the other solder joints made in reflow, wave and selective soldering. When this is not desirable a cleaning operation needs to be performed. Furthermore the fumes of a colophony containing solder wire are considered hazardous. A fume extraction is mandatory but anyway advisable for any hand soldering operation. Colophony containg wires are still being used quite a lot but colophony free solder wires and more specifically solder wires from the 'RE' classification are gaining importance. Colophony is also used in solder pastes. Beside giving a good process window in time and temperature, it also provides a good stability of the solder paste on the stencil. This will facilitate a stable printing process and hence stable soldering results and defect rates. The discoloration of the rosin in reflow soldering is not so prominent as it is with a solder wire because the temperatures in reflow soldering are lower than in hand soldering. Still the rosin residue has poor compatibility with conformal coating and in time after thermal cycles it might show cracks or detatching of the conformal coating. Although most manufacturers will apply the conformal coating over the solder paste residues, for optimal results it is advisable to clean off the solder paste residues. Giving the benefits of colophony described above, most solder pastes contain colophony.

  • The wetting ability of a soldering product refers to how well the activation of the soldering product is able to clean off oxides from the surfaces to be soldered. These oxides need to be removed to enable the liquid soldering alloy to penetrate the surfaces to be soldered. When the quality of the surfaces to be soldered in electronics manufacturing is normal, it is possible to use a soldering product from the lowest activation class L0. In general, only when surfaces are degraded or when the base metal is hard to solder, then a product with a higher activity or increased wetting ability is used. Such surfaces can be for example chemical Sn that was applied too thin or stored too long before soldering, components or PCB boards that were stored too long in hot and humid conditions and are heaviliy oxidised, non protected Ni, brass,... Another possible reason for using a product with increase wetting ability is ease-of-use. For example a solder wire with increased wetting ability in general will provide faster soldering and is not so sensitive to the correct handling required to produce a good hand soldered solder joint. In high volume hand soldering operations for electronc units that have not so high requirements to the residues after soldering, solder wires with increase wetting ability are often used. Also for robot soldering and laser soldering solder wires with increase wetting ability are often used because in general they have better properties for these processes.

  • RoHS stands for Restriction of Hazard Substances. It is a European directive: Directive 2002/95/EC. It restricts the use of some substances that are considered Substances of Very High Concern (SHVC) in electrical and electronic equipment for the territory of the European Union. A listing of these substances can be found below: Please note that this info is subject to change. Always check the website of the European Union for most recent information: 1. Cadmium and cadmium compounds  2. Lead and lead compounds  3. Mercury and mercury compounds(Hg)  4. Hexavalent chromium compounds(Cr)  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)  6. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN)  7. Chlorinated paraffins (CP)  8. Other chlorinated organic compounds  9. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)  10. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) 11. Other brominated organic compounds  12. Organic tin compounds (Tributyl tin compounds, Triphenyl tin compounds)  13. Asbestos  14. Azo compounds  15. Formaldehyde  16. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and PVC blends  17. Decabrominated diphenyl ester (from 1/7/08)  18. PFOS : EU directive 76/769/EEC (not allowed in a concentration equal to or higher than 0.0005% by mass) 19. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)  20. Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP)  21. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)  22. Diisobutyl phthalate 23. Deca brominated diphenyl ester (in electrical and electronic equipment) Other countries outside of the European Union have introduced their own RoHS legislation, which is to a great extent very similar to the European RoHS. 

  • Increased activity of a soldering product can be needed for surfaces with poor solderability like e.g. brass, unprotected Ni, Oxidised Ag, Cu that was not micro-etched,...or surfaces with degraded solderability like e.g. I-Sn that was stored too long or did see too much heat, Cu-OSP that passed a lead-free reflow profile too long ago,...An indication of the activity of a soldering product is their classification. The most popular and accepted classification for soldering products is the IPC. L0 is the lowest activation class and the standard, it should be suitable for all normal quality conventional surfaces used in electronics assembly. L1 is the lowest activation class but with a halogen content up to 0,5%. These halogens will in most cases already give a better result on many of the previously mentioned surfaces with poor or degraded solderability. The other activation classes are M0 and M1 and H0 and H1. M stands for Medium and H stands for High. 0 stands for up to 500ppm of halogens for both M0 and H0. 1 stands for up to 2% of halogens for the M1 class and for H1 more than 2% of halogens are allowed. Soldering products of the H class are to be treated with care as they can be corrosive and need to be cleaned off, preferrably in a automatised cleaning process.